You must write a final paper, as a form of critical meditation, on one (or more) case study artworks or exhibitions covered in class.  This paper must also address, in depth, 2 -3 texts covered in class. Only one text may be from the same week as the case study. The idea is to reflect upon a combination of artworks and texts covered over the entire 10 weeks of our class. Your questions are prompts for you to return to the artworks/exhibitions/texts and dig deeper on what you initially found interesting. Please reference the Chicago Manuel of Style for footnotes etc.

Paper length: 2000- 3000 word

Case Studies You may select from either the case studies covered in required reading and/or those case studies covered in the supplemental reading. You may add other artworks to the discussion, but you must focus your primary analysis on a case study work covered in class.  These include:

Oscar Masotta, To Induce the Spirit of the Image, week two, Thinking

Mary Kelly, The Practical Past, week three, Hermeneutics

Alexandra Weltz & Andreas Pichler, Negri: The Revolt that Never Ends, week four, Empire

Marcel Duchamp, The Society of Independent Artists Exhibition, week five, Readymade

Jim Hubbard, United in Anger: A History of ACT UP, week six, AIDS demographics

Elisabeth Sussman, et. al., 1993 Whitney Biennial, week seven, Identity Politics

Yael Bartana, What if Women Ruled the World? week eight, Feminism/Resistance

Omar Mismar, Schmitt, You and Me, week nine, Friend/Enemy

Koki Tanaka, A Piano Played by Five Players at Once, week ten, Performance/Community

After reading the two articles, “Laptops are Great. But not During a Lecture or a Meeting” by Susan Dynarski and ” (Links to an external site.)No, Banning Laptops is Not the Answer” (Links to an external site.)by James M. Lang, write a synthesis of them. Your synthesis should accurately summarize what each of these two authors is saying, while showing your reader–in an organized way–where their ideas are similar and where they differ.

Do not give your opinion. You are trying to clearly communicate to your readers what these two writers are arguing, including what points they agree on and what points they disagree about.

Length: 1 page

link to  “Laptops are Great. But not During a Lecture or a Meeting” by Susan Dynarski:
link to No, Banning Laptops is Not the Answer” :

write an essay in which you identify one piece of technology or one invention that has had a large impact on modern society. Some examples might be: the MP3 player, tablet computers, HD television and video cameras, hybrid vehicles, recycling plants, Webcams and programs like Skype, social networking, etc. This is an informative essay so you will need to describe the technology or invention thoroughly, explain what it is and how it came to be invented, and then explain how it has transformed the way people do things in the modern world and why this is important to society.

In 400 to 500 words, answer the following question. Is writing necessary for civilization? Be sure to be clear about your definition of civilization. Consider the evidence and sources available to scholars (written or otherwise) and how they’re used to inform us about the past.

I believe writing is not necessary for civilization. There was civilization before writing had began being used widely. Civilization really emerged after the emergence of homo sapiens. Civilization is about much more than writing, an early civilization has agriculture, raising of livestock, densely populated cities, social hierarchy, government/rule of law, possible trading, religion, and spoken language. Those are all things that make up early civilizations and all could happen without written language.

If you could write an essay about early civilization not needing writing to be considered civilization that would be perfect. Please cite your sources in MLA format (I need sources) along with defining what is a civilization.