The fact that effective teaching makes a difference in terms of student learning has been an accepted premise in public education for decades. And while master teachers intuitively differentiate their instructional strategies based on individual student needs, far too many schools and teachers do not. In fact, many techniques and processes in schools throughout the nation are actually contributing to the achievement gaps rather than helping to close them. With this focus in mind, describe the various cultural obstacles that have been preventing key intervention strategies from closing the achievement gaps. Give examples of the various state, district, and school structures that contribute to, or help to alleviate, the various achievement gaps.
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