The exam covers material from Chapters 1, 2, 3 of the textbook.
There six (6) essay-based questions.

This exam is open-resource (specifically and exclusively, you may access the textbook, your notes, and the recorded lectures for this course. You should NOT use other sources). Your answers must be yours – your own thinking and in your own words. The exam is to be done individually, without collaboration with other students. Do NOT write your exam directly into Bb you may lose work. Write your responses directly into this document, adjusting for as much text space as you need.  The book its attach in the upload files.

For each of your responses be sure to explain your reasoning.   Support your responses by using evidence, using relevant examples when appropriate, showing an understanding of the relevant theory/concepts. BE SPECIFIC, DETAILED, AND EXPLICIT in your answers.

1A     Of the (4) definitions of behavior below, select the one you think is best. In detail explain the reasons for your choice. Your explanation must provide scientific reasons why you think your selection best captures a definition of behavior. What would you add or change to this definition to improve it? Explain your reasoning.

1B. For each of the other three definitions of behavior below, discuss what is useful about that definition and what, if anything, you find lacking and/or problematic.

(i)    Behavior is the coordinated responses of whole living organisms to internal and/or external stimuli

(ii)    Behavior is externally visible activity of an animal, in which a coordinated pattern of sensory, motor, and associated neural activity responds to changing external or internal conditions

(iii)    Behavior can be defined as the way an organism responds to stimulation

(iv)    All observable or otherwise measurable muscular and secretory responses (or lack thereof in some cases) and related phenomena, such as changes in blood flow and surface pigments in response to changes in an animals internal and external environment

2.    You are in the forest and observe that the squirrels in the forest appear to cache* nuts only near certain species of plants.

*(cache = store away in hiding for future use)

Construct a hypothesis for how the specific squirrel caching behavior you have observed can be explained by each of the following: Natural Selection, Individual Learning, Social Learning. Thus, you will have three distinct hypotheses.

Keep in mind a hypothesis is a statement NOT a question.

a.    Natural selection

b.    Individual learning

c.    Social learning (cultural transmission)

3.    You are exploring the islands of Hawaii (lucky you!) and observe that male field crickets are singing less frequently, and upon further observation you notice the file on their wing is reduced.

Using Tinbergens 4 question types/levels of analysis (see below), construct an explanation for the reduction of singing. (Make sure you provide an explanation, and DO NOT phrase as a question.)

a.    Mechanism

b.    Development

c.    Survival value

d.    Evolutionary history

4.    Consider that variation of a behavioral trait is due to genetic input, to environmental influence, and the interaction of genetics and environment. In light of this, explain in detail how the uterine environment in which a fetus matures complicates further our ability to clearly assess genetic and environmental influence on behavioral trait variation.

5.    Define neuroethology. How has neuroethology been used to study learned behavior in voles? Using this example, illustrate the ways that proximate studies of behavior use between-population and between-sex comparisons to help us better understand behavior and its variation.

6.    Honeybees live cooperatively and have a strict division of labor. For example, some honey bees are foragers and some remain in the colony and help nurse larvae. What skills would a forager need have to be good in their role? And explain the evidence to support the claim that foragers are predisposed for their role? Be specific and detailed!