Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible. 

Field, A. P. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

**Justin**

This author is choosing to use a mixed-methods research design in order to fulfill the requirements of the Ph.D. at Liberty University due to the complex nature entailed within the dissertation. Quantitative research design uses statistical and numerical data to discover, present, and analyze theories or perspectives that studies seek to explore (Field, 2018). Quantitative research is a critical component of mixed-method studies and uses statistical data in order to explore and document findings. According to Watson (2015), Quantitative research encompasses a range of methods concerned with the systematic investigation of social phenomena, using statistical or numerical data (p. 1). In order to test hypotheses, one needs to determine independent and dependent variables regarding the study. According to Field (2018), Most hypotheses can be expressed in terms of two variables: a proposed cause and a proposed outcome (p. 8). After the variables are determined then measurement can begin. 

Dissertation Quantitative Design

 The styles of leadership that will be measured are transformational, transactional, and authoritative. Ultimately, the research will determine if and how different leadership styles have a strong or weak correlation between how officers conduct their duties, organizational commitment, and how the relationship within the community if affected, based on the style of leadership and the duties performed by officers. All officers and organizations will be assigned coding to keep the information anonymous due to the political nature of the profession and the effect that some interviews could have on officers, supervisors, and employment. Also, individuals will be selected from a wide variety of administrative law enforcement personnel, front-line employees, and citizens. This selection of individuals will allow unbiased measurement of the different styles of leadership and the effects it has on the organizational culture, employees, and the community.

Quantitative measurements will be concluded from questions posed upon the above groups in the form of personally administered quantitative interview techniques. Pre-determined questions will be developed by this author and interviews will be conducted and measurements will be conducted using the Likert-scale methodology. To this author, this will be the most effective and efficient method to collect, measure, and analyze the data that is brought to light. Likert-type scales of measurement are one of the most commonly used forms of measurement to capture perceptions and attitudes of human subjects. According to Ho (2017), Examining perceptions and attitudes with Likert-type scales allows for ease of statistical analyses and comparisons across groups (p. 678). The research being conducted by this author is examining a diverse collection or perceptions across a variety of groups; therefore, the Likert-type scale will allow ease and clarity when reviewing the analysis. 

Variables

 Variables are critical to quantitative research. According to Watson (2015), A variable is anything that may be measured in quantitative research, for example, height, weight, attitude, or wellbeing (p. 1). However, control variables can also play important roles in quantitative research. These variables are controlled by the design of the research. The research will present seven control variables that include sex (male=1; female = 0), age (metric), length of service (metric), rank (1 = low-rank below sergeant; 0 = high-rank, sergeant or above), education level (1 = high school; 0 = college, university, and graduate), length of time living within the community (1 = longer than 10 years; 0 = less than 10 years), encounters with law enforcement personnel (1= more than 5 times a year; 0 = less than 5 times a year).  

Measurement

The quantitative portion of this authors dissertation will be measured using four five-point Likert scales and questionnaires. According to Stratton (2018), Likert data are designed for assessment of the attitudes of a population (p. 118).  Also, in order to stop bias from occurring the participants will be randomly selected from predetermined populations. The scale items will measure perceptions using the original Likert-scale and the five ordinal categories (most agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and most disagree). The varying responses will range from 4 to 10 points. Collecting these pre-determined questionnaires that utilize the Likert-scale the research will be able to measure the police, police leadership, and the communitys outlook on transformational, transactional, and authoritative leadership and how it affects the organization and community policing efforts. The Likert-scale will be measured using ordinal data in terms of means, standard deviations, and reflect parametric statistical information. 

Biblical Perspective

Religion and academic studies seek to uncover the truth. Truth should be sought after in every aspect of life. Not only can more comprehensive and inclusive research be used to find the truth and the pursuit or knowledge be applied in academia but can also serve individuals in their personal lives. John 7:18 states, Whoever speaks on their own does so to gain personal glory, but he who seeks the glory of the one who sent him is a man of truth; there is nothing false about him (New International Version). Therefore, researchers and Christians alike should reflect clarity and truth in professional and social lives.

Conclusion

This author is using a mixed-methods style of research. This research uses quantitative and qualitative research properties in order to explore and explain theories. Mixed methods research is critical to scientific and academic studies. This form or research allows more intimate and detailed research, through qualitative measures, that is backed by statistical quantitative methods. This author outlined the research design and how the predetermined questions will be asked of the study subjects and measured using the Likert-scale method in order to address the diverse and complex theory of how leadership affects different groups and stakeholders. 

References

Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: North American Edition. London, UK: Sage.

Ho, G. (2017). Examining perceptions and attitudes: A review of Likert-type scales versus Q-methodology. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 39(5), 674-689.

Stratton, S. (2018). Likert data. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 33(2), 117-118.

Watson, R. (2015). Quantitative research. Nursing Standard, 29(31), 1-7.

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