The second short essay is a bit longer than the first one and involves a critical reflection upon your first essay. First, read through the questions featured on the weekly schedule of the syllabus. Choose one question to address in a 4 – 5 page essay. Your answer must include both 1) a reflection upon the analysis in your first essay and 2) an analysis of a new passage or scene from a story that was not featured in your first essay.

What you need to do:

Reread your first paper. Pay attention to the way in which you analyzed the scene you chose. Dont forget to read the comments that you were given on your paper. Addressing the major issues specified in your comments is one of the best ways to ensure a successful second essay.

Take notes on your own paper: what did you like about your analysis? What didnt you like? What did you not do enough of? What would you do differently if you were to write it again?

Reread the questions featured under each week on the weekly schedule on the syllabus. Pay close attention to the questions. Is there one question that helps you to think about your first essay and that you would like to explore more? Choose one question only. 

Once you have identified a question that relates to problems or interesting issues with your first essay, choose a scene or passage from another story that you might be able to analyze in order to reflect upon the problems you encountered in your first essay. This scene might be dealing with a similar literary problem (eg. an opening paragraph, a landscape description, a dialogue, a character type) or a similar functioning of time as a category in the story, or it might be a contrasting depiction, where either time or the literary problem serves a different function. The key is to CHOOSE CAREFULLY.

[NB By scene we mean something rather short. It might be a dialogue, a paragraph or two of description, or a page or two of an event. It should NOT be the whole story or a plot summary. You do need to contextualize your scene within the whole story, but do not analyze the whole story or begin your paper with a synopsis of the entire plot.]

This paper has two goals: it should perform a new analysis of a scene whilst also reflecting upon your previous analysis, identifying problems in that previous analysis and showing how you can improve them in this new essay. Another way to think of this assignment is: what have you learned from your first essay that enables you to write a better second essay? Give a brief summary of what you wrote in your first essay and how you would like to improve it, and then show us in a reading of your second scene how you would improve it.  Essentially you will be using your own first essay as a source for your second paper, which means analyzing your thinking and writing and referring to it in the context of your new argument, which necessarily means being critical of your own previous work.

Please remember the following:

You should consider the scene in terms of the question you have selected from the syllabus.
As last time you should look closely at what is happening in your chosen scenefocus on details in the scene itself, not big general concepts. After youve looked closely at the scene youre analyzing, then you can consider the bigger implications and dynamics at work in it.
Remember to pay attention to questions, for instance, of how things are described and what characters thought processes are. Make sure youre able to support your ideas with the text itself. Avoid guessing, speculating, or hypothesizing about what might have happened in the story, but focus rather on the details of what is actually happening and what kind of meaning you can infer from those details.

This is not a research paper, and you should use no sources other than your chosen passage and your own first essay to make your argument. This is your chance to demonstrate that you can read literature carefully, closely, and thoughtfully.

Lastly, since you will only be using at most a few pages of two sources, there is no need to have a full bibliography or formal citations. Make it clear in the beginning of your essay which story and passage youre discussing and when you refer to specific moments in your passage, include the page number at the end of the sentence in parenthesis. For instance, this is what it would look like if the last part of this sentence is a quote from page 20 of the text (20).

Your analysis should be 4-5 pages long, double-spaced and in font size 12.

A 5-7 page paper on an approved topic, using Times New Roman, 12 pt. font.  Bibliography to include one primary source and five secondary sources.  No encyclopedias may be used as a source.  Footnotes and bibliography should be in accordance with Turabian, 8th edition.  Citation and bibliography examples are shown at:

Read from: The Age of Reconnaissance, J. H. Parry

    Chapter 8 (131-145)
    Chapter 9 (146-162)
    Chapter 12 (190-206)
    Chapter 19 (303-319)

Write a five to seven page paper about the voyages of the Age of Discovery and the consequences of them for colonialism and empire. This essay needs to address the following questions:

From Chapter 8:

    What was the exploration of the West African coast a preliminary of?
    What is the Treaty of Alcaovas? What were the terms of the agreement?
    Who is Bartolomeu Dias? Why is he significant?
    Why wasnt Dias voyage immediately followed up with another voyage around Africa?

From Chapter 9:

    How did Columbus come to the conclusion that he could reach Asia from Europe?
    On Columbus return, why did the Spanish monarchs turn to the pope for help?
    What did the pope do?
    What was Portugals response? What did John II achieve?
    What was the immediate objective of Columbus second voyage?
    Did Columbus believe he landed in Asia? Did other Europeans also believe this?
    Who is John Cabot? Why is he significant?
    Who is Amerigo Vespucci? Why is he significant?
    Who is Ferdinand Magellan? Why is he significant? What was his goal? What country did he sail for?
    What is the Treaty of Zaragoza (1529)?
    What was the result of the discovery of Magellans strait?

From Chapter 12:

    How were the Portuguese able to dominate the eastern trade routes for a hundred years?
    Who was Sir Francis Drake? Briefly describe his mission and voyage.
    How were the Dutch able to challenge the Portuguese?
    Who is Jan Pieterszoon Coen? Why is he significant?
    Why did the Dutch set up a colony at the Cape in South Africa (1652)?

From Chapter 19:

    What problem did the European empires overseas create?
    In the sixteenth century, which country led the rest of Europe in law, government, and jurisprudence?
    On what did the Spanish crown officially base its right to rule the Indies?
    What is the doctrine of universal papal dominion? Was it universally accepted? What was the objection to it?
    Who is Francisco de Vitoria? What was his argument concerning war and conquest?
    Bartolome de las Casas? What did he argue in regard to the rights of the Indians? What authority did he argue that the Pope had? What does he say are the duties of kings?
    Who is Juan Gins de Seplveda? What was his argument about just war and conquest? How was his work received?
    What happened at Valladolid (1550)? Did it have any impact of the Spanish Crown?
    Who you do agree with las Casas or Seplveda? Why?

Submit a paper proposal  for your comparative paper.
Set out the context of the topic of your paper in thinking comparatively about two similar or dissimilar writers, themes, ideas, perspectives that we have encountered and analyzed throughout the course.
You must address at least one reading or media we have discussed in the course, and you are free to relate this to an outside reading/media.
Include a short working bibliography.
Develop a finessed and articulate argument/thesis statement on the issue or problem in the topic of your paper.
Explain why the topic is important, relevant, and interesting.
Outline the ways in which the topic and problem/issue will be addressed.

Consider at least 2 of the following issues: legalization of drugs, educational standards, welfare, environmental regulation and enforcement, same sex marriage, and abortion. What level of government should regulate these issues? Are decisions on these issues better placed in the hands of the states or of the federal government? Why? Provide evidence of additional research on your issues.

Thomas is tired of hearing his grandparents talk about how things were when they were his age. He listens about how they were expected to work to contribute to the family and were happy to do so, how they were happy to have enough to eat and didn’t expect to eat out regularly, etc. Thomas explains to his grandparents that things are different now, so his feelings are different from theirs. What term would historians be most likely to use for how it feels to live in a particular time and place?

Each of the two separate exam answers must be 6-7 pages (1500-1750 words) in length, double-spaced, numbered, include 1-inch margins, and use 12-point Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman font. You must include a cover page that says simply HIST 480 Course Challenge Exam. Each exam answer must include footnotes or endnotes and a separate Works Cited or Bibliography page. The Works Cited page is not included in 6-7 page length. Only primary and secondary sources are allowed (no tertiary sources). You must answer each question separately with the exam question at the top of the page.

The citation style must be Chicago/Turabian

Each exam answer should include three main partsthe Thesis/Introduction, Argument, and Conclusion.

1.    Discuss the role of Confucianism in Chinese history. What was the historical context in which Confucius developed his ideas? How and why were Confucian ideas supported by Emperors for nearly two thousand years?

3.    Discuss the development of the Imperial state in Chinese history and highlight the historical characteristics of two dynasties. How and why did political structures in China maintain a high degree of consistency for nearly two thousand years?

Write your rough draft of your research paper. Your paper should answer your research question in an organized way, using factual information from reputable, peer-reviewed sources.
Your paper must have a title page.
You must have a minimum of 5 full pages of research content.
Footnote each of the sources (5 minimum) as you quote them using proper Chicago citation.
Finish with a bibliography page (completed in correct Chicago style).
Papers will be double-spaced using Times New Roman 12 pt. font.
Margins will be 1 left and right.

Double-spaced, with one-inch margins
12-point font, Times New Roman
Quotations and sources cited according to The Chicago Manual of Style
Formatted using The Chicago Manual of Style

Imagine you are a high-level adviser to the Emperor in ancient China. Your assignment is to write a thoughtful, well-written position paper
advocating ONE of the major “ways of thought” in ancient China (Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism or Buddhism). You need to explain why your
chosen philosophy has the best solutions for the problems of the times (roughly 750 BCE-100 BCE), how you define these problems is
important, and why you believe the government and society should be organized and run according to the principles you advocate.
Learning Objective: This assignment is designed to help you think about the challenges faced in ancient China and ways to develop social and
cultural solutions. It will help you understand the major schools of Chinese philosophy and thought, and how they influenced society and the

Identification Terms: Answer all of the following terms. When answering the term questions, make sure that you identify the term in a short paragraph that answers when, who, what, how, and why the identifying term was relevant historically. (5 points each)

You must use sources and site them within each term with the page number, book, or primary document. You are allowed to use outsides sources However, IF YOU USE WIKIPEDIA.COM, SPARKNOTE.COM, ENCYCLOPIA.COM OR ANY DERIVATIVE SOURCE MENTIONED IN THE SYLLABUS, I will consider each term not reliable, and thus, you will not receive points for that term

Theodore Roosevelt

Civil Rights Bill 1866

Bloody Shirts

W.E.B. Du Bois

Panama Canal

Emilio Aguinaldo

Alfred Mahan

Homestead Act of 1862

Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s

Elizabeth Cady Stanton